Monotheistic worship was certainly the norm in Judea. The [biblical] books of Malachi and Nehemiah, however, speak of such problems as violations of sacrificial law, neglect of the Sabbath, and nonpayment of tithes. There was a breakdown of morality and a rise in divorce. Cheating of employees and preying on the weak became commonplace, and many of the poor were reduced to servitude. Intermarriage with the surrounding nations threatened the continuity of the Jewish community. It was at this crucial juncture that the great reformers Ezra and Nehemiah made their appearance.
And they finished building according to the command of the God of Israel and the decree of Cyrus, Darius, and Artaxerxes king of Persia. Preface: An Apologetic for My Approach. One has been to get my facts as correct as possible, allowing the plain sense of the Bible, supplemented by the plain sense of extrabiblical historical sources, to form the foundation of my research. Only after this was first done have I evaluated what scholarly sources had to say, lest the latter take precedence over Scripture.
on the date of Ezra’s mission by H. H. Rowley published in and the “The Chronological Order of Ezra and Nehemiah,” republished in The Servant of.
By Mark A. Louisville: WestminsterlJohn Knox, The present volume is the latest addition to the Interpretation series addressed to preachers and teachers. Following the format of the series, Throntveit has a brief introduction dealing with Ezra-Nehemiah as narrative, literary conventions, authorship, setting and message. Rather than proceeding verse by verse, the commentary has the form of expository essays on segments of the text based on the RSV. Throntveit divides the work into two sections of unequal length: return and reconstruction Ezra Neh and renewal and reform Neh The former is again divided into sections corresponding to the three returns successively under Zerubbabel Ezra , Ezra Ezra , and Nehemiah Neh ; The only departure from the order of the MT is the displacement of Nehemiah 5-the account of social abuses and their removal–to the end of the hook as a separate memoir of Nehemiah.
In general, Throntveit expounds the text in broad strokes rather than by detailed and close reading.
Generally, there is limited scope for explicitly Christian witness and action. Moreover, workers may feel pressure to violate the ethical requirements of biblical standards, either explicitly or implicitly. In a pluralistic society, some such limits may be appropriate, but they can make the workplace feel like alien territory to Christians. Yet along the way they receive surprising help from nonbelievers in the highest positions of civic power. Ezra had to ponder whether to trust an unbelieving ruler to protect the Jewish people as they returned to Jerusalem and began rebuilding the temple.
Nehemiah had to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem, which required him to both trust God and be pragmatic.
Buy Ezra Nehemiah (Niv Application Commentary Series) by Donna Petter in Hardback Ezra and Nehemiah – Walking in God’s Word (Reading The Bible Today Publisher Zondervan; Publication Date Jan ; Dimensions x mm.
The Book of Ezra is a book of the Hebrew Bible ; which formerly included the Book of Nehemiah in a single book, commonly distinguished in scholarship as Ezra—Nehemiah. The two became separated with the first printed rabbinic bibles of the early 16th century, following late medieval Latin Christian tradition. Together with the Book of Nehemiah , it represents the final chapter in the historical narrative of the Hebrew Bible.
Ezra is written to fit a schematic pattern in which the God of Israel inspires a king of Persia to commission a leader from the Jewish community to carry out a mission; three successive leaders carry out three such missions, the first rebuilding the Temple, the second purifying the Jewish community, and the third sealing the holy city itself behind a wall. This last mission, that of Nehemiah , is not part of the Book of Ezra. The theological program of the book explains the many problems its chronological structure presents.
The Way Back: Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther
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Like its companion series on the New Testament, this commentary devotes considerable care to achieving a balance between technical information and homiletic-devotional interpretation.
Nehemiah as well as its probable author(s). According to Clines () the issue of dating Ezra and Nehemiah cannot be divorced from the issue of the.
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Books of Ezra and Nehemiah
The books of Ezra and Nehemiah one book-in the Hebrew Bible trace the story of the return of the people of God to the land of Israel after the year captivity in Babylon. Scholars differ as to the chronological order of the books, some maintaining that the events of Nehemiah occur before those of Ezra. Other historians place the return under Zerubbahel recounted in the first six chapters of Ezra as the earliest return, dated approximately B. Be that as it may, we shall follow the biblical order so that we might learn the meaning of these events in the spiritual parallel of our individual lives.
The book of Ezra begins with the same words which close the book of 2 Chronicles.
The Date of Ezra—Nehemiah E—N’s composition has traditionally been dated to about BCE; the last event described in the book is Nehemiah’s second.
The treatment of Ezra-Nehemiah as a single book by the earliest editors was undoubtedly due to the fact that in ancient times the two books were put under the one name, Ezra. The combined work Ezra-Nehemiah is our most important literary source for the formation of the Jewish religious community in the province of Judah after the Babylonian exile. This is known as the period of the Restoration, and the two men most responsible for the reorganization of Jewish life at this time were Ezra and Nehemiah.
In the present state of the Ezra-Nehemiah text, there are several dislocations of large sections so that the chronological or logical sequence is disrupted. The author combined this material with other sources at his disposal. The personality of Ezra is not so well-known as that of Nehemiah. Ben Sira, in his praise of the fathers Sir 44 — 49 , omits mention of Ezra, perhaps for polemical reasons.
The genealogy of Ezra — 5 traces his priesthood back to Aaron, brother of Moses. It was in religious and cultic reform rather than in political affairs that Ezra made his mark as a postexilic leader. Jewish tradition holds him in great esteem. The Talmud regards him as a second Moses, claiming that the Torah would have been given to Israel through Ezra had not Moses preceded him. Ezra is sometimes accused of having been a legalist who gave excessive attention to the letter of the law.
His work, however, should be seen and judged within a specific historical context.
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The Masoretic tradition regarded the books of Ezra and Nehemiah as one book and referred to it as the Book of Ezra. This was also the Greek tradition, and the same Greek name, Esdras, was given to both books see below. The division into separate books does not occur until the time of Origen fourth century c.
Date. Koresh of Ezra Scholars are divided over the chronological sequence of the activities of Ezra and Nehemiah. Ezra says.
They found written there that the people should live in booths during the holiday of the seventh month Neh.